Although everyone has their views on this, looking at this entrenched debate from a particular position may do more harm than good; ultimately, what matters is where we stand collectively. In that regard, the existence alone of intergovernmental organizations, such as the WTO, presupposes a predisposition towards international cooperation. This has been further reinforced through various initiatives, with one of the most recent ones being the G20 Trade and Investment Ministerial Meeting on September 22, 2020.
“When nothing seems to help, I go and look at a stonecutter hammering away at his rock perhaps a hundred times without as much as a crack showing in it. Yet at the hundred and first blow, it will split in two, and I know it was not that blow that did it, but all that had gone before." Pounding The Rock. 2018. The Stonecutter’s Creedo. Available at: https://www.poundingtherock.com/pages/the-stonecutters-creedo. [Accessed 25 September 2020].
Wto.org. 2020. Trade Falls Steeply In First Half Of 2020.
Available at: https://www.wto.org/english/news_e/pres20_e/pr858_e.htm, [Accessed 26 September 2020].
Cdc.gov. 2020. 1957-1958 Pandemic (H2N2 Virus) | Pandemic Influenza (Flu) | CDC.
Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/flu/pandemic-resources/1957-1958-pandemic.html. [Accessed 26 September 2020].
Begley, S., 2013. Flu-Conomics: The Next Pandemic Could Trigger Global Recession
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International Monetary Fund. 2020. World Economic Outlook Update, June 2020: A Crisis Like No Other, An Uncertain Recovery.
Available at: https://www.imf.org/en/Publications/WEO/Issues/2020/06/24/WEOUpdateJune2020 [Accessed 26 September 2020].
There were responses by the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the World Bank (WB) that served to alleviate some of the most immediate consequences stemming from the crisis. Similarly, the G7 pledged to take «all necessary steps» to stem the crisis. Nevertheless, there was no institutional reform nor coordinated policy actions meant to tackle future crises.
Pedersen, P., Diakantoni, A., Perez del Castillo, C. and Mkhitarian, A., 2018. WTO Trade Monitoring Ten Years On Lessons Learned And Challenges Ahead.
Wto.org. Available at: https://www.wto.org/english/res_e/reser_e/ersd201807_e.pdf. [Accessed 25 September 2020].
Wto.org. 2020. Report on G20 Trade Measures
(Mid-October 2019 to mid-May 2020). Available at: https://www.wto.org/english/news_e/news20_e/report_trdev_jun20_e.pdf. [Accessed 26 September 2020].
Burrow, S., 2020. Life Post–COVID-19 Six Prominent Thinkers Reflect On How The Pandemic Has Changed The World
. International Monetary Fund. Available at: https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/fandd/2020/06/how-will-the-world-be-different-after-COVID-19.htm. [Accessed 26 September 2020].
A similar idea is found in «Arthashastra», a Sanskrit treatise on statecraft which has influenced foreign policy for centuries. The proverb goes, «the enemy of my enemy is my friend».
The most impactful International action around climate change is arguably the Paris Agreement – an agreement within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), signed in 2016, and dealt with greenhouse-gas-emissions mitigation, adaptation, and finance.
Roy, A., 2020. The Pandemic Is A Portal.
Ft.com. Available at: https://www.ft.com/content/10d8f5e8-74eb-11ea-95fe-fcd274e920ca. [Accessed 26 September 2020].
G20.org. 2020. G20 Trade And Investment Ministerial, Meeting Communique. Available at: https://g20.org/en/media/Documents/G20SS_Communique_TIMM_EN.pdf. [Accessed 26 September 2020].
The decision by the National Basketball Association Commissioner, Adam Silver, to suspend the 2019-2020 season after the first case of COVID-19 amongst its players marked a turning point in the United States and began a tidal wave of reactions in response to COVID-19 from civil society to the Government of the US, as well as other countries.
Keck, A. and Low, P., 2004. Special And Differential Treatment In The WTO: Why, When And How?. Wto.org. Available at: https://www.wto.org/english/res_e/reser_e/ersd200403_e.doc. [Accessed 26 September 2020].
Keck, A. and Low, P., 2004. Special And Differential Treatment In The WTO: Why, When And How?. Wto.org. Available at: https://www.wto.org/english/res_e/reser_e/ersd200403_e.doc [Accessed 26 September 2020].
The Doha Declaration, in conjunction with the Decision on Implementation-Related Issues and Concerns, established a mandate to the Committee on Trade and Development (CTD) to identify which of those S&D treatment provisions are mandatory, while considering the legal and practical implications of making mandatory those which are currently non-binding. Additionally, the Committee was set to examine ways in which developing countries, particularly the LDCs, may be assisted in making the best use of S&D treatment. Wto.org. 2020. Development: Special And Differential Treatment Provisions. Available at: https://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/devel_e/dev_special_differential_provisions_e.htm. [Accessed 26 September 2020].
Anderson, C. and Sally, D., 2014. Why Everything You Know About Football Is Wrong. London: Penguin Books.
Or football, as it is pretty much known everywhere outside of the United States.
Keck, A. and Low, P., 2004. Special And Differential Treatment In The WTO: Why, When And How?.
Wto.org. Available at: https://www.wto.org/english/res_e/reser_e/ersd200403_e.doc. [Accessed 26 September 2020].
Philippians 2:4 (ESV). Let each of you look not only to his interests but also to the interests of others.
Wolff, A., 2020. Importance Of Transparency, Cooperation In Dealing With Pandemic Challenges.
Wto.org. Available at: https://www.wto.org/english/news_e/news20_e/ddgaw_15sep20_e.htm. [Accessed 26 September 2020].
The optimistic scenario predicted a 13% fall while the pessimistic scenario foretold a dramatic 32% decline. Wto.org. 2020. Trade Set To Plunge As COVID-19 Pandemic Upends Global Economy
. Available at: https://www.wto.org/english/news_e/pres20_e/pr855_e.htm. [Accessed 26 September 2020].
WTO.org. 2020. Trade Falls Steeply In First Half Of 2020
. Available at: https://www.wto.org/english/news_e/pres20_e/pr858_e.htm. [Accessed 26 September 2020].
The Economist. 2020. How Has Trade Survived Covid-19?.
Available at: https://www.economist.com/finance-and-economics/2020/09/12/how-has-trade-survived-covid-19. [Accessed September 26 2020].
Riis, J., 1971. How The Other Half Lives: Studies Among The Tenements Of New York
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